To promote and support the rules and norms of human social order, is fundamentally people based on their needs and the purpose of life activity, is produced in the activities of the differentiation and integration mechanisms, including the people themselves and their social existence of differentiation and integration. This mechanism is not only the driving force for the development of human beings and human society, but also the direct basis for the formation and establishment of various rules and norms.
“Nothing can be accomplished without norms or standards”, China’s saying, that the people in their activities, intentionally or unintentionally established rules, norms, for human social order to form and maintain the decisive significance. In direct terms, there are rules that govern what order. We have specific rules or norms, decided to order is not all strange phenomenon of the rules, but you need to make it clear that the implications the rules or norms of human society, it said above “rule” with us or what is the relationship between “tao”.
There is no doubt that rules and norms first mean certain rules, boundaries and limitations. But what is the basis and substance of regulations, limits and limits? To constitute a social life could be carried out normal rules or norms of system, we can say from macro, is based on people’s normal life activities, they point to is both distinction and connection between human beings and the nature of the reasonable relationship, this relationship is to promote the benign development of the world. They live But this kind of macro statement only shows a principle. Only by revealing the specific and even microscopic factors and mechanisms can we truly understand the rules and order. Such as human activities and social rules from human nature gradually, or by the emergence of a large number of accidental phenomenon and become a routine, or people consciously design, it and what’s the relationship between human nature and people’s life and so on, this obviously requires that we give concrete solutions.
In fact, when we say “life is the best teacher”, has shown we are the first to live, perhaps the original is to live like animals, consciously bud, will signal, but has no sense of form and language. Animals living in certain natural environments gradually form their own activities and internal specific relationships under natural selection, and become physiological genetic instincts. Among conscious people, there is also a problem of adapting to and dealing with their relationship with the environment and their internal relationships. Therefore, on the one hand, people will naturally follow the instinct of life is the effective way of activity, and make it in the form of consciousness strengthened, on the other hand, some occasional or unconscious unorthodox move, due to the unexpected effect, caused different emotions and attitudes, some have been rejected and defend and some popular and was repeated imitation, and so is a habitual action and ordinary people’s behavior is practice. These practices as “tacit knowledge” of people, at the same time showthe dual role of the “provisions as negation”, as it has spread and accepted by more and more people imitate and gradually form the customs. As a result, the rules of human society were originally a variety of “prerules”, namely, the habits, customs, common sense and conventions of the preliminary rules. After the authority of the community is given unified rules by means of language symbols, these customs or conventions are established as formal “rules” or “norms”. With the transition of tribes to the state, there is a further emergence of the written rules of political order or legal form, namely, “institutions”. As fukuyama puts it in his book “the origin of political order”, the system is basically the rule of individual choice. “It can be said that human beings are born to build institutions. People calculate how they can get the best out of themselves, so as to make rational rules and perform social contracts with others. Humans are naturally cognitive and know how to solve the problem of cooperation in the prisoner’s dilemma. They remember past actions as guidance for future cooperation; They spread and learn about the credibility of othersthrough small talk and other sharing; They have a keen sense of what they are doing to detect lies and untrustworthy behavior. They have a common pattern of sharing information, both verbal and non-verbal. In a sense, setting and following rules is a shortcut, which greatly reduces social costs and allows for efficient collective action.